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Patents Laws in India & Intellectual Property Laws

How to Register Patent in India? How to File Patent Applications in India? How to Challenge Patent Registration in India?

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Patents in India: Laws , Procedures, Registering and Challenging Patents

Intellectual Property Laws in India


The Patent system in India is governed by the Patents Act, 1970 (No 39 of 1970) & The Patents Rules 1972, effective from April 20,1972. Subsequently The Patents Act, 1970 is amended effective from January 1, 1995 & The Patents Rules, 1972 is amended effective from June 2, 1999.

India Simplifies Patent Norms

India notified the Patents (Amendment) Rules 2006, bringing in changes to provide transparency, decentralization of the functioning of patent offices and simplify the procedures making them user-friendly. As per the changes notified under the Patents (Amendment) Rules, 2006, patent applications are now to be mandatory published within one month after expiry of the statutory period of 18 months. In case of request for an early publication, the application is to be published within one month from the date of request. This step will introduce an element of certainty regarding the date of publication, which was hitherto not available. Further, with a view to enforcing transparency and ensuring time bound disposal of patent applications, definitive time frames have been prescribed for various activities by the patent offices. A patent application now has to be referred to an examiner within one month of a request for its examination and the controller will be required to take a decision within one month of its submission, it said, adding that the first examination report must be issued in six months of the date of request for examination of a patent.


The Patent Office, under the Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, has been established to administer the various provisions of the Patents Law relating to the grant of Patents & The Designs Law, relating to the registration of Industrial Designs.



India is member of the following treaties governing patents:

  • Convention establishing World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

  • Trips Agreement under the World Trade Organization.

  • Paris Convention for the protection of Industrial Property with effect from Dec. 7, 1998.

  • Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) with effective from Dec. 7, 1998.


  • Ordinary Patent

  • Patents of addition

  • Convention


Application may be made, either alone or jointly with another, by the inventor, assignee, legal representative of deceased inventor or assignee. The inventor is entitled to be mentioned in the patent if he applies to do so.

Application may be made jointly by two or more corporations as assignees.


An invention means any new and useful art, process, method or manner of manufacture; machine, apparatus or other article; or substance produced by manufacture, and includes any new and useful improvement of any of them, and an alleged invention.

An invention means any new and useful art, process, method or manner of manufacture; machine, apparatus or other article; or substance produced by manufacture, and includes any new and useful improvement of any of them, and an alleged invention.


(1) An invention that is frivolous or that claims anything obviously contrary to well-established natural laws;

(2) An invention the primary or intended use of which would be contrary to law or morality or injurious to public health;

(3) The mere discovery of a scientific principle or the formulation of an abstract theory;

(4) The mere discovery of any new property or new use for a known substance or of the mere use of a known process, machine or apparatus unless such known process results in a new product or employs at least one new reactant;

(5) A substance obtained by a mere admixture resulting only in the aggregation of the properties of the components thereof or a process for producing such substance;

(6) The mere arrangement or rearrangement or duplication of known devices, each functioning independently of one another in a known way;

(7) A method or process of testing applicable during the process of manufacture for rendering the machine, apparatus or other equipment more efficient, or for the improvement or restoration of the existing machine, apparatus or other equipment, or for the improvement or control of manufacture;

(8) A method of agriculture or horticulture;

(9) Inventions relating to atomic energy.

In the case of inventions relating to substances prepared or produced by chemical processes (including alloys, optical glass, semiconductors and inter-metallic compounds) & substances intended for use or capable of being used as food. No patent will be granted in respect of claims for the substances themselves, but claims for the methods or processes of manufacture will be patented.


Application form in triplicate.

Provisional or complete specification in triplicate. If the provisional specification is filed it must be followed by complete specification within 12 months (15 months with extension).

Drawing in triplicate (if necessary).

Abstract of the invention (in triplicate).

Information and undertaking listing the number, filing date and current status of each foreign patent application in duplicate.

Priority document (if priority date is claimed).

Declaration of inventorship where provisional specification is followed by complete specification or in case of convention application.

Power of attorney (if filed through Patent Agent).

Fee in cash/by local cheque/by demand draft.


Application is required to be filed according to the territorial limits where the applicant or the first mentioned applicant in case of joint applicants for a patent normally resides or has domicile or has a place of business or the place from where the invention actually originated .If the applicant for the patent or party in a proceeding having no business, place or domicile in India., the appropriate office will be according to the address of service in India given by the applicant or party in a proceeding.


All the applications for patent accompanied by complete specification are examined substantively. A first examination report stating the objection(s) is communicated to the applicant or his agents. Application or complete specification may be amended in order to meet the objection(s). Normally all the objections must be met within 15 months from the date of first examination report. Extension of time for three months is available, but application for extension therefore must be made before the expiry of normal period of 15 months. If all the objections are not complied with within the normal period or within the extended period the application will be deemed to have been abandoned. When the application is found to be suitable for acceptance it is published in the gazette of India (Part III, Section2). It is deemed laid open to the public on the date of publication in the gazette of India.


Notice of opposition must be filed within four months of notification in the Gazette. Extension of one month is available, but must be applied for before expiry of initial four month period.


If the application is not opposed or the opposition is decided in favour of the applicant or is not refused the patent is granted or sealed on payment of sealing fee within 6 months from the date of advertisement. However, it is extendable by three months.


The Register of Patents will be kept in the Patent Office and its branch offices. Register of Patents can be inspected or extract from it can be obtained on payment of prescribed fee. Register of Patents contains full details of the Patent which include Patent number, the names and addresses of the patentee; notification of assignment etc.; renewals, particulars in respect of proprietorship of patent etc.


A patent grant gives the patentee the exclusive right to make or use the patented article or use the patented process. He can prevent all others from making or using the patented process. A patentee has also the right to assign the patent, grant licenses under, or otherwise deal with it for any consideration. These rights created by statute are circumscribed by various conditions and limitations.


Renewal fees are payable every year. The first renewal fee is payable for third year of the patent’s life, and must be paid before the patent’s second anniversary. If the patent has not been issued within that period, renewal fees may be accumulated and paid immediately after the patent is sealed, or within three months of its recordal in the Register of the Patents.

Date of payment of Renewal fees is measured from the date of the patent. Six months’ grace is available with Extension fee. No renewal fees are payable on patents of addition, unless the original patent is revoked and the patent of addition is converted into an independent patent; renewal fees then become payable for the remainder of the term of the main patent.

No renewal fees are payable during the pendency of the application for a patent; renewal fees that become overdue during pendency are payable upon sealing within three months of recordal in the Patent Register.


Annual reports as to the extent of working, by every patentee and licensee, are a statutory requirement and must be submitted by March, 31 each year for the previous year ending December, 31.


On failure to work a patent within three years from the date of its sealing, an interested party may file petition for grant of a compulsory license.

Every patent for an invention relating to a method or process for manufacture of substances intended for use, or capable of being used, as food, medicines, or drugs, or relating to substances prepared or produced by chemical process (including alloys, optical glass, semi-conductors and inter-metallic compounds) shall be deemed to be endorsed "Licenses of Right" from the date of expiry of three years from the date of sealing the patent.


Applications must be filed on the prescribed form with the Controller for the registration of assignments and any other documents creating an interest in a patent in order for them to be valid. In order to be valid, an assignment must be recorded within six months from the date of the document. A six-months extension may be obtained.


Applications must be filed on the prescribed form with the Controller for the registration of licenses and any other documents creating an interest in a patent in order for them to be valid. A license must be recorded within six months from the date of the document.


A patent lasts for 14 years from the date of filing the complete specification (if an application is filed with provisional specification on January 1, 1989, and a complete specification is filed on January 1, 1990, the duration is counted from January 1, 1990). However, for food, drug and insecticide patents, the life is seven years from the date of complete specification, or five years from date of sealing, whichever is shorter.


Application for restoration of a patent that lapses due to nonpayment of renewal fees must be made within one year of lapse. If an overdue annuity is not paid within the extension period, the one-year period for seeking restoration commences from the date of recordal.


Infringement can consist of taking away essential features of the patented invention; utilizing claimed features; copying patented substances; mechanical equivalence; taking part of the invention. while the patent is in force. Use by the government or for government purposes is not infringement. Such use must be paid for on terms to be agreed upon before or after use. Accidental or temporary use, use for research, use on foreign vessels, do not constitute infringement.


Appeal lies in the High Court. Appeal must be lodged within three months from the decision of the Controller.


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